Parasitic Fungus Of The Vine: The Most Common And Harmful Adversities For Our Vineyard

Parasitic Fungus Of The Vine: The Most Common And Harmful Adversities For Our Vineyard

The vine is a climbing tree that has been cultivated for centuries, both for the production of table grapes and for the production of wine. Fungal diseases are, among the adversities that can affect this plant, certainly those that can cause most damage, there is not a single fungus parasite of the vine but there are several and very dangerous.

Let’s see together what they can be and how to recognize them to avoid irreparable damage to our vineyard.

What are Mushrooms?

Mushrooms are heterotrophic, unicellular or multicellular organisms, which means that they are not able to synthesize all the organic molecules they need independently.

In order to survive they have to rely on organic compounds previously synthesized by other organisms, which are instead called autotrophes, such as all plants.

The relationship that may exist between this organism and the infested plant varies according to the species of fungus:

  1. Saprophytic fungi, which live at the expense of other dead organisms.
  2. Parasitic fungi, which live at the expense of another living organism, those most harmful to our vineyards, can cause the death of the plants.
  3. Symbiotic fungi, that is to say that they always live exploiting another living organism but in this case both the symbiote and the host take advantage of this cohabitation.

Vine Fungus Parasites

There are several species of vine fungus parasites the most common and harmful are:

  1. Anthracnose – this fungus strikes the leaves causing small dry areas isolated or intersected with the edges of black-purple; it also strikes the shoots that have circular depressed notches, brownish in color; the grapes of the bunch infected by the fungus break easily favoring the proliferation of ‘gray mold’.
  2. Euthypiosis – plants attacked by Eutypa lata have weak shoots, short internodes, small, deformed, chlorotic leaves, with necrosis at the margins. The infection worsens from year to year until it causes the death of the plant after 3-4 years.
  3. Excoriosis – Phomopsis viticola affects young shoots, which have lesions and cracks, even deep, another characteristic symptom is the bleaching in the affected areas. These symptoms occur especially in winter.
  4. Bait disease – the attack of these fungal organisms causes the death of the entire plant more or less abruptly, altering the woody tissues with the exception of the outer layer.
  5. Acid rot – takes its name from the smell of vinegar emanating from the affected bunches. This disease is caused by a joint action of various species of yeast, which attack the berries, causing them to break down.
  6. Black rot – all herbaceous organs of the vine can be attacked by this fungus, with the presence of necrotic notches on leaves, shoots, shoots and leaf petioles. The affected berries wither and darken until they take on a bright black color.
  7. Root rot – manifests itself in general weakening of the plant, withering of the leaves, reduced growth of the vegetation.
  8. Grey mould – the attack of Botrytis cinerea is limited to the bunch, and is favoured by the lesions present on the berries, which assume a brown color covering themselves with a greyish felt patina.
  9. Oidium – on the leaves attacked by Uncinula necator we can see faded discoloured areas covered with a whitish efflorescence, the affected berries have reticulated lesions in the skin and pulp
  10. Grapevine downy mildew – the leaves attacked by Plasmopara viticola first have translucent spots, called oil spots covered on the underside with abundant whitish mould, then dry up; the young herbaceous shoots affected take on a soft consistency and then the necrosis of the tissues; the bunches attached at any stage of flowering, dry up in whole or in part
  11. White caries of the vine – caused by the fungus Pilidiella diplodiella, develops after hailstorms and manifests itself with damage to the bunches that are covered with whitish pustules. The grapes thus affected fall to the ground.

The production of wine grapes in Italy boasts excellent names and centuries-old vineyards, but also for our small vineyard, you understand how important it can be to act quickly by identifying the unwanted guest to be able to fight and eradicate it.

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